Her work considered the importance of understanding the ways that individuals identify within an academic discourse, a discourse that typically situates young people dichotomously; as those who will achieve and those that will not. Some of the main theories are presented below.
Socialization is the process by which the new generation learns the knowledge, attitudes and values that they will need as productive citizens.
Anyone who fails to achieve this goal, according to the myth, has only themselves to blame.
Theoretical perspectives[ edit ] The sociology of education contains a number of theories. Sargent confirms this cycle, arguing that schooling supports continuity, which in turn supports social order. Social location is considered important but its role is complex. They are therefore "cooled out"  from school with the least qualifications, hence they get the least desirable jobs, and so remain working class.
Some kids form anti-school subcultures and cope with school and then turn adult work by mucking about.
For example - the lack of engineering graduates indicates that education fails to produce what employers and the economy needs. It demands "uniformly of all its students that they should have what it does not give" [Bourdieu  ].
In this way, the continuation of privilege and wealth for the elite is made possible in continuum. He agrees with Durkheim that education helps make people agree about norms and values.
Willis shows that students actually resist authority. Therefore, the other purpose of education is to sort and rank individuals for placement in the labor market [Munro, ]. Although this aim is stated in the formal curriculum,  it is mainly achieved through the hidden curriculum a subtler, but nonetheless powerful, indoctrination of the norms and values of the wider society.
Understanding the importance of areas such as self-efficacy, confidence and resilience in shaping educational identity at the level of agent and subsequently, educational attainment and aspirations, has been central to her most recent work.
Museum visits, books and parental knowledge of education. This is called the allocation function. It is in part determined by the objective chances of that class.
The subjective expectations influenced by the objective structures found in the school, perpetuate social reproduction by encouraging less-privileged students to eliminate themselves from the system, so that fewer and fewer are to be found as one journeys through the levels of the system.
Bourdieu used the idea of cultural capital to explore the differences in outcomes for students from different classes in the French educational system. Pupils from manual backgrounds lived for immediate gratification. Bourdieu has therefore built his theoretical framework around the important concepts of habitusfield and cultural capital.
This heralded a period of methodological division within the sociology of education. According to Sennet and Cobb however, "to believe that ability alone decides who is rewarded is to be deceived".
Education helps to create social order based on cohesion and value consensus. After World War IIhowever, the subject received renewed interest around the world: Values of the working class are a self-imposed barrier to improving their position. For example, middle class parents are more likely to visit schools fro open evenings.
Althusser thinks education produces a docile and obedient work force. Bear in mind that some working class parents may not attend due to inconvenient shifts - not lack of interest. In effect, they perpetuate the myth that education is available to all to provide a means of achieving wealth and status.
Middle class students knew how to use the same elaborated code as the teachers - a much more wordy style of speech with everything made explicit. Political arithmetic[ edit ] The Political Arithmetic tradition within the sociology of education began with Hogben  and denotes a tradition of politically critical quantitative research dealing with social inequalities, especially those generated by social stratification Heath Bourdieu argues that it is the culture of the dominant groups, and therefore their cultural capital, which is embodied in schools, and that this leads to social reproduction.
Class ethos is described as the particular dispositions towards, and subjective expectations of, school and culture. The process of social reproduction is neither perfect nor complete,  but still, only a small number of less-privileged students achieve success.Past papers and mark schemes Practising past papers is an effective way to revise for your exams.
Test yourself in timed, exam conditions to prepare for the experience and see how you perform. See all Sociology resources» Related discussions on The Student Room.
AQA AS sociology paper» AQA AS Sociology Prediction » Aqa sociology unit 2 21st may revision thread - inc. Free sociology papers, essays, and research papers. My Account. Your search returned - The research methods in sociology and anthropology are similar yet follow a specific set of guidelines for each.
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Since its inception through the early decades of the 20th century, the discipline of sociology was essentially monolithic in perspective, representing a rather narrow range of topics in social problems areas.Download