If he has no problems, no dilemmas, he is not likely to look for solutions. One key factor in development of moral reasoning is the regularity with which one encounters moral dilemmas, even if only hypothetically.
The moral maxim "It is better to give than to receive" reflects a high level of development. Preconventional level At the preconventional level, Kohlbergs theory is externally controlled. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished.
Authority is outside the individual and reasoning is based on the physical consequences of actions. What Kohlberg was mainly interested in was not whether the boys judged the action right or wrong, but the reasons given for the decision.
Defense of the given social and institutional order for its own sake. Everybody is doing it. Different individuals have different viewpoints. Such people are often marked by uncritical cynicism "All politicians are crooks…nothing really matters anyway"disillusionment and alienation.
The individual strives to support rules that are set forth by others such as parents, peers, and the government in order to win their approval or to maintain social order.
This type of reasoning involves taking the perspective of every person or group that could potentially be affected by the decision. Rules imposed by authority figures are conformed to in order to avoid punishment or receive rewards.
Thus, the theoretical emphasis is on how one decides to respond to a moral dilemma, not what one decides or what one actually does.
Small towns are notorious for their low level "provincial" reasoning. Abstract principles are the basis for moral decision making, not concrete rules. For example, it is all very well in the Heinz dilemma asking subjects whether Heinz should steal the drug to save his wife.
Punishment is mainly for deterrence. What is the just thing to do given all the circumstances? The Good Citizen Respect for fixed rules, laws and properly constituted authority.
Heinz Steals the Drug In Europe. Why should I believe anything? A better way to see if all children follow the same order through the stages would have been to carry out longitudinal research on the same children.
What will bring the most good to the largest number of people? Carol Gilligan, a student of Kohlberg, did not believe his conclusions were cognizant of women. An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. Is justice the most fundamental moral principle?The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning.
Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors.
kohlberg's stages of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg was a moral philosopher and student of child development. He was director of Harvard's Center for Moral Education. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development also seems to have a troubling normative aspect – that is, it seems to suggest that certain kinds of moral reasoning are better than others.
This, of course, presupposes certain moral assumptions, and so from a philosophical perspective Kohlberg’s argument is. Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized for its cultural and gendered bias toward white, upper-class men and boys. It also fails to account for inconsistencies within moral judgments.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, a comprehensive stage theory of moral development based on Jean Piaget’s theory of moral judgment for children () and developed by Lawrence Kohlberg in Cognitive in nature, Kohlberg’s theory focuses on the thinking process that occurs when one decides whether a behaviour is right or wrong.
Gilligan concluded that Kohlberg’s theory did not account for the fact that women approach moral problems from an ‘ethics of care’, rather than an ‘ethics of justice’ perspective, which challenges some of the fundamental assumptions of Kohlberg’s theory.Download