For sulfide ores, both secondary supergene and primary hypogenefroth flotation is used to physically separate ore from gangue. In addition, mechanisms and models of biosorption of precious metal ions from solutions are discussed.
The matte is removed by draining it through a hole into ladles for it to be carried by crane to the converters. Some supergene sulfide deposits can be leached using a bacterial oxidation heap leach process to oxidize the sulfides to sulfuric acid, which also allows for simultaneous leaching with sulfuric acid to produce a copper sulfate solution.
Previous article in issue. Such oxide ores are usually leached by sulfuric acidusually in a heap leaching or dump leaching process to liberate the copper minerals into a solution of sulfuric acid laden with copper sulfate in solution. Roasting metallurgy The roasting process is generally undertaken in combination with reverberatory furnaces.
The slag layer is periodically allowed to flow through a hole in the wall of the furnace above the height of the matte layer. The modern froth flotation process was independently invented the early s in Australia by C.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. A key objective in the metallurgical treatment of any ore is the separation of ore minerals from gangue minerals within the rock. Supergene sulfide ores rich in native copper minerals are refractory to treatment with sulfuric acid leaching on all practicable time scales, and the dense metal particles do not react with froth flotation media.
Abstract A complex process for the recovery of copper and zinc from mining and metallurgical wastes has been investigated and proposed. By-products generated in the process are sulfur dioxide and slag.
Smelting was initially undertaken using sinter plants and blast furnaces or with roasters and reverberatory furnaces. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The treated ore is introduced to a water-filled aeration tank containing surfactant such as methylisobutyl carbinol MIBC.
For oxide ores, a hydrometallurgical liberation process is normally undertaken, which uses the soluble nature of the ore minerals to the advantage of the metallurgical treatment plant.
Therefore, further stages of processing converting and fire refining are required. Initial concentration techniques included hand-sorting  and gravity concentration.
It was concluded that acid leaching of base metals from old pyrite flotation tailings with pregnant leach solution for the ferric leaching of copper converter slag flotation tailings is a prospective and promising technique for the complex treatment of mining and metallurgical wastes.
It can be undertaken in a variety of furnaces, including the largely obsolete blast furnaces and reverberatory furnacesas well as flash furnacesIsasmelt furnaces, etc.
The sulfur is removed at high temperature as sulfur dioxide by blowing air through molten matte: In the last decade, attentions have been removed from pyrometallurgical process to hydrometallurgical process for recovery of metals from electronic waste.
Often, the nature of the gangue is important, as clay-rich native copper ores prove difficult to liberate. Recent research on recovery of energy from PC waste gives an example for using plastics in this waste stream. It indicates that thermal processing provides a feasible approach for recovery of energy from electronic waste if a comprehensive emission control system is installed.
The subsequent ferric leaching of copper converter slag flotation tailings containing 0. The furnace is fired with burners using pulverized coal, fuel oil or natural gas  and the solid charge is melted. Wagner offers the absolute best quality, award winning shredders for more Copper recovery methods from metallurgical waste 30 years running.
This section does not cite any sources. Alternatively, the copper can be precipitated out of the pregnant solution by contacting it with scrap iron; a process called cementation.
Thus, the two factors that most affect the loss of copper to slag in the smelting stage are: However, limited research was carried out on the bioleaching of metals from electronic waste. The copper sulfate solution the pregnant leach solution is then stripped of copper via a solvent extraction and electrowinning SX-EW plant, with the barred denuded sulfuric acid recycled back on to the heaps.
Fire refining[ edit ] The blister copper is put into an anode furnacea furnace that refines the blister copper to anode-grade copper in two stages by removing most of the remaining sulfur and iron, and then removing oxygen introduced during the first stage.
Such carbonate concentrates can be treated by a solvent extraction and electrowinning SX-EW plant or smelted. In the review, initial researches on the topic are presented. The copper ore is crushed and ground to a size such that an acceptably high degree of liberation has occurred between the copper sulfide ore minerals and the gangue minerals.
They resulted in high losses of copper. Reverberatory furnaces can additionally be fed with molten slag from the later converting stage to recover the contained copper and other materials with a high copper content.
Standard and custom engineered configurations available. The ore is then wet, suspended in a slurry, and mixed with xanthates or other reagents, which render the sulfide particles hydrophobic. Reverberatory furnaces were often used to treat molten converter slag to recover contained copper.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message Until the latter half of the 20th century, smelting sulfide ores was almost the sole means of producing copper metal from mined ores primary copper production.Metal recovery of solid metallurgical wastes.
Galvanostatic electroextraction of spouted bed electrodes and the treatment of copper-containing waste streams is studied by J. W. Evans et al. .
A study of Fe removal from Cu leachate I.S. Ivanov: Metal recovery of solid metallurgical wastes. Galvanostati c electroextraction of copper.
Recovery/Recycling Methods for Metal Finishers. RO systems have been used to recover chromium, copper, zinc, brass, cadmium, tin, palladium and other precious metals, but the most common application for RO technology is in the recovery of acid nickel. Because of the liability regarding land disposal of hazardous waste, off-site recovery.
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtaining copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes.
The conversion of copper consists of a series of chemical, physical, and electrochemical processes. Table 3 gives a summary of typical pyrometallurgical methods for recovery of metals from electronic waste. It is clear that the traditional technology, pyrometallurgy has been used for recovery of precious metals from waste electronic equipment in practice for years.
RECYCLING OF COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC BEARING WASTES ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT regarded at the present time to constitute environmentally sound processes for the recovery of copper, lead and zinc from wastes.
3. 4. metals and metal compounds [Recovery Operation R4 in OECD Council Decision C(88)90 (Final)]. for recycling of copper and precious metals from waste PCBs are proposed and optimized: the use of selective leachants for recovery of high purity metals (fluoroboric acid, ammonia-ammonium salt solution), conventional leachants (sulphuric acid.Download